This link is dedicated to helping those who are in the midst of resurrecting an “Old School” motorcycle for the purpose of vintage motorcycle racing. Those bikes with points and condensers instead of electronic ignitions. Those that have carburetors rather than fuel injectors. If you are on such an honorable mission, this is the place for help. This article cleaned up and refreshed on January 17th, 2018.
Table of Contents: 1) Building Race Bike, 2) Wheels & Tires for Vintage Racing, 3) Shocks,
Building a CB350 “Stocker” Race Bike
This is a quick recommendation list based on what I know about racing and the 350 Honda:
This document and included links are based on 350k Honda OEM parts on a CB350K, CL350K or SL350 Honda manufactured from 1968 to 1973. Upgrading brake hub, brake plate, spokes, rims, forks & parts, etc… will require different parts than linked below and will be covered in another document! The concept of racing a “stocker” includes the fact that there isn’t much required to be changed to race them. As 50 year old motorcycles, there are some things that are best replaced as updates due to aging and mileage.
Consider this: The natural evolution to a 350 (actually manufactured as a 325cc motorcycle where 350 was a model number, look at the front of the cylinders for the 325cc identifier cast into them) Honda stocker race bike is to become a Vintage 1 Class (WERA) and/or 350 Sportsman (AHRMA) and/or other 362cc souped up class vintage race motorcycle. As such, one might consider that there are five versions of the race bike. At the same time is should be noted that this author has enjoyed “double digit” racing a 350 stocker for more than a decade.
- A bare-bones basic “run what ya brung” basic motorcycle that meets minimum qualifications to pass technical inspection. This could literally be your average 350 Honda that ran well enough to ride on the road, that was stripped of things allowed, hopefully had race compound tires put on it, then taken to the track.
- A basic bike prepped for racing, updated with most or all of the things listed in this article, and ready to race in one of the many stocker classes in the world as a bike that has been refreshed for racing
- A transition bike that may have one or more of the upgrades to make it ready to receive a souped up motor as described in the Vintage 1 or 350 Sportsman classes. Once you’ve built a basic prepped bike and are racing regularly, you might find yourself making this transition naturally to upgrade the bike as your skills increase.
- A fully upgraded V1 or 350 Sportsman bike that is capable of performing with the almost doubled horsepower motor installed in the frame. The motor upgrade for this type bike starts at around $3,000 and that is with the racer doing the upgrade labor on the motor themselves.
- A special configuration bike for the AHRMA Lightweight Production Novice class: It is a very original looking bike with mandatory street features left on the bike. This class is for newbies and is the least expensive and least time consuming because it is so close to the way it was sold on the showroom floor. Note that bike version #5 would chronologically be between #1 and #2, if your bike is ever to take that path.
Understanding this path makes it easier to put your priorities in perspective. What is described in this article is bike #2, a basic prepped race stocker 350 Honda built from 1968 – 1973. One important note includes that there are TWO TYPES OF CB350. This article references the CB350K, CL350k, and SL350k two cylinder bikes. Beware that when shopping for parts that there is a CB350F (four cylinder) Honda that does not qualify in the classes mentioned herein, nor will the parts fit your 350 Honda twin.
Consider this: Moving forward on a tight-budget-basis will mean increasing your chances to complete a stocker race bike. It is otherwise quite possible to prevent, or significantly delay, completion of your race bike build by exceeding your budget before completion. I recommend aiming for a complete basic prepped bike to get YOU to the track, develop experience and understanding that will allow you to appreciate later upgrades as your budget allows. Any parts that are replaced with upgrades can be sold to future racers and increase your financial resources for your race bike.
My best recommendation includes making the bike a runner and testing it on the road. Looking for issues that you want to know about by the time the motor is apart. Proper Shifting, unexplained leaks, working carbs and any engine issues that will need to be researched while the motor apart are best known before the motor is apart.
As soon as you buy ANY vintage motorcycle, get a VIN verification completed by your county police. In the state of Georgia, at Georgia T22B form is required and the July 2013 or later version is required. Having this completed means that you are working on a bike that is yours to keep and not something that someone else can rightfully take away from you.
Insure and register the bike! Liability only insurance gets you the ability to register the bike to ride on the road. The road becomes your test track. This is really important! Without a place to legally test ride your bike, your bike budget could be gobbled up with “police encounters”.
Things that can be left on the bike until convenient to remove:
Fork Ears: These can be used as number plate mounts and should be considered being left on forever? These are items found on an AHRMA Lightweight Production race bike as part of the original look.
Electric Starter Motor: Removing this will require removing the left/port engine case cover, cleaning both gasket surfaces, adding a new gasket, etc… Probably best to save this modification for the engine overhaul where you will have to do all things all over again, if done before. This also leaves the option should you decide to take advantage of the starter even if with an external battery and jumper cables from your car or truck.
Charging system: The alternator rotor and stator can be left on the engine through your first racing season without a doubt. Leaving the charging system fully functional means not having to worry about charging your battery will be one less thing to make your learning curve steep. Also, for your first season, your racing skills will be a limiting factor, not any excess weight or spinning mass. If by chance your charging system has the original “Orange Fin” Zener diode, REPLACE IT AS THE FIRST THING BEFORE STARTING YOUR RACE BIKE PROJECT. They are also another item that is not “if” but “when” they die. And when they die, they take your battery down at the same time. 2 weeks shorted, a lead acid battery doesn’t have much of a chance for recovery.
NEVER CONNECT LITHIUM BATTERY to a charging system with an orange fin Zener diode and/or mechanical voltage regulator (found under battery box)! Lithium batteries already have a reputation of catching fire in normal solid state charging systems. The original components of a CB350/CL350/SL350 were designed to work with the very forgiving lead/acid batteries which in worst cases would “boil” the battery leaving the acid solution evaporating more rapidly than usual. Simply upgrade your charging system with a SOLID STATE electronics combo unit and have the peace of mind that goes with it.
A solid state regulator/rectifier (shown above) can be installed that replaces both OEM units (voltage regulator and rectifier) in one package. Simply disconnect BOTH the original regulator and rectifier, remove white rectangular connector and replace wire ends with appropriate gender bullet connectors. Soldering and heat shrink insulating the old voltage regulator connector end to the solid state regulator/rectifier would leave only one wire requiring a bullet connector (black).
Stock Exhaust: Unless you have a show condition exhaust system, you can consider using the original exhaust for racing. If it’s show condition, sell it for more race bike resources??? The CL350 exhaust offers the benefit of ground clearance, but does make access to the left/port carburetor slightly more difficult. The CL350 muffler/collector end of the system usually becomes rusted through and can be cut off (as far back as possible). Replacement options include the Emgo tapered shorty mufflers (about $50 each). The stock CB350 exhaust system is a little low to the ground, but if your bike came equipped with aftermarket mufflers, they probably clear the road better when leaning. Both stock exhaust system are heavy and you will eventually want to replace them with lighter systems, like the Mac 2 into 2 exhaust (~$300) for the 350 Honda twins. Or, perhaps you want to go to the racer’s choice of the Jemco 2 into 2 system for around $500.
Stock Battery Box: It’s a little high on the center of gravity scale, but if you find that to be an issue, consider a lithium battery or a different mounts setup. Velcro mounting to the top of the swingarm significantly lowers the center of gravity concern and
The stock seat: especially the early model (rear flip) seats are fairly low and close to the frame. Eventually you will want a fiberglass seat that hugs the frame close and low as possible. Stock seats are part of the AHRMA Lightweight Production Novice configuration.
Stock Foot Peg Assembly: Some race classes like the Production Lightweight Novice class with AHRMA require the stock foot pegs be used. If you do have to keep the stock foot pegs, CUT THE SIDE STAND PORTION OF THE ASSEMBLY OFF! Simply removing the side stand bolt will leave the portion I am speaking of. That will hang down and dig into the track, throwing you off the bike!
Things you may want to take off the bike:
Handlebars and bar mounts (Replace with fork mounted clip-on bars)
Front and rear fenders (The brace under the fender should be removed from the fender and attached back onto the forks as it is the OEM designed fork brace.)
Turn signal and tail light assemblies
OEM Rider Foot peg Assembly (Required for AHRMA Production Lightweight Novice)
Speedometer and speedo cable
Headlight, turn signals
Side covers and a breather (However, if you remove the rubber “velocity stack” from the air boxes, that is the part that clamps to the carburetor, that is all you need on your carburetors for velocity stacks)
Chrome Lift Handle (for use with center stand)
Stock Mufflers: Unless you are going to enter the AHRMA Production Lightweight Novice class, the original mufflers are really too much for the race track. Too heavy, to quite/restrictive, and too hard to replace as nobody makes the OEM original exhaust since the original production. The same Emgo tapered mufflers recommended for the CL350 also clamp nicely to the CB350 headers with adaptor provided with mufflers.
OEM ball bearing steering bearings (Replace with tapered steering bearings) Tapered steering bearings (“The first modification to a race bike.”, Buff Harsh, and I totally agree!)
Existing Fork Seals (replace with new, clean and flush out old oil at that time) There are two old schools of thought about the new fork oil to use. 1) Use fork oil with preferred viscosity. 2) Use ATF (automatic transmission fluid) My preference! Self cleaning ATF in a vintage set of forks is a no-brainer.
Use existing wheels/hubs/spokes to get it on the road for complete engine & transmission & carburetor testing.
Clean and Rebuild carbs: I only race with Keyster 1561HK carb kits in my stocker 350! The 1561HK kits are designed perfectly to work with the 722A model KeiHin carburetors. The kit replaces all the brass and rubber aged parts. If you have the 3D or similar model carbs, you simply reuse your air/fuel mixture screw and spring after cleaning the tips.
Things you DO NOT want to put on your race bike:
New aftermarket Petcocks: Some of the new petcocks have narrower fuel channels that restrict the flow of fuel to the carbs. Some are mislabeled causing you to turn your gas on when you want it off and vise versa. Instead, remove the brass “straw” of the fuel main on and consider drilling it out. A race bike does not need a reserve side to the petcock. Both on settings should be draining from the reserve/lowest point in the tank.
Lithium Battery: Using a lithium battery is recommended ONLY if you have a solid state regulator/rectifier unit on your vintage motorcycle. As the lithium battery technology is subject to catching fire in the best of situations, you don’t need to subject it to the worst.
Wheels that have not been freshly trued and upgraded with wider rims for modern tires. You can do it. You might not have any problems. But it’s not what you want. I recommend the Continental Road Attack II radial tires. The same size tire front and rear! They offer a 100/90-18 in a race compound that requires a 2.75″ wide rim. Their street version of that tire comes in a 90/90-18 that is very happy with a 2.15″ wide rim. I will be setting up last seasons rims with a set of the 90/90-18 street compound for race testing.
I raced the 100/90-18 on 2.15″ rims in 2017 and had a blast without incident. Next year I will be running those exact same tires on a 2.75 wide front rim on a CL450 front brake/hub assembly and the rear will have an SL350 rear hub laced to a 2.5″ wide rim sporting the CL200 rear brake plate.
FYI, the hub and brake plate are not made for each other as there is about 1mm overlap at the inner hub which required some “material removal”, about 1mm from each the hub and the brake plate. This leaves me with a smaller/lighter rear wheel with overly detuned rear braking from both the smaller shoes/drum to the brake arm being flipped in a manner that instead of going closer to more brake capability it goes away from brake leverage. No more pats on the back for rear wheel lockup recoveries.
For more tire & wheels information, see: Wheels & Tires for Racing (In only three pages) near the end of this document, below.
Items to refresh/replace on your basic prepped stock race bike, 350K Honda:
Fuel tank: Rebuilding your carburetors only to fill them with grunge from your vintage tank is futile. Having a tank interior that looks like this is what gives you the confidence to forget about the tank forever: POR-15, DONE CORRECTLY, ROCKS!
Chassis & Control Items:
Rear Brake Shoes (Optional as rear brakes can get you in trouble, consider using originals)
Fork oil (7 wt)
Shocks: This is a rider/budget restricted item. There are $1,200 shocks and $100 pairs to chose from
Clip-ons (33mm forks OEM, 35mm is the standard upgrade using CB450, CB550, or CB750 parts)
Fiberglass seat (Personal preference item; make sure measurements match your frame)
Plastic rear1/2 fender From later model Honda, cable tie mounted forward of frame tubes. Without some protection you will be throwing dirt and rubber from the track straight into your open velocity stacks. Protect the carbs and put a half fender between the rear tire and the carbs.
Rear Sets foot pegs and controls
520 Chain Conversion (35T sprocket on rear seems to be trick for stock motors, 15, 16, & 17 tooth front sprockets are swapped out to optimise for different track configurations)
Metal Valve Stem Caps (SCI Link to Follow?)
Perches and Levers (with Dog Leg Levers) in Black Includes new Adjusters
Your approach is up to you. Options include running the 50 year old rubber cam chain tensioner for the first season as only a minor risk, if the rubber roller looks good behind the cam chain tensioner. But this is not recommended. After street testing your engine/transmission consider installing the Teflon cam chain slipper tensioner upgrade with the Tsubaki/Camillia flat slide chain or new OEM rubber tensioner wheels. This does require a complete motor tear-down and splitting the cases. So long as you’ve tested the shifting capabilities of your motor and are confident they do not need replacement, then this could be the last time you are in your lower end.
Those with the early engines 1xx and 2xx serial numbers will want to replace the kick start mechanism when working inside the engine as well unless you want to leave your bike as a push start only engine. The early model kicker is a matter of when it breaks with use, rather than if it breaks. Push starting the 350 Honda twin takes no effort at all, once tuned up properly.
If during your street testing you have no issue with blue smoke from the exhaust (having someone riding behind you is helpful to detect this) then using your existing pistons/rings is an option. You might consider this as one of your determining factors is the rubber wheel on the cam chain tensioner looks good too?
Following two options should be considered together! One without the other is no good.
- Teflon cam chain slipper tensioner (Bore-tech/THR?)
- Tsubaki/Camillia flat slide chain (Bore-tech/THR?)
Kicker internal parts upgrade, if necessary (eBay)
Piston/Rings/Wrist Pin/Circlip (Check the rules you plan to race under. 1.0/fourth over are linked)
Lithium Battery The 8 Cell Battery is what I run with. 5, 12 minute practice sessions and no recharge!
THE ULTIMATE RACER’S CARB REBUILD KIT Take a close look at all you get and what little you pay!
Or, 2 BASIC Carb kits
Inevitable Shopping List (PARTS):
Carb Boots and Gaskets, if needed
Float Bowl Seals NO BRAINER: have SPARES as gas swollen gaskets don’t fit till dry again. If you EVER take off a float bowl gasket and want to race that day, HAVE SPARES!
Fiberglass Cafe Seat (be sure to compare measurements to frame size)
Exhaust System (Mac to Jemco) (***5PA)
Wheels/Rims & Spokes (***5PA)
Inevitable Shopping List (TOOLS AND SUPPLIES):
Some form of air supply, tires (I like the Craftsman BoltOn Compressor Attachment)
Leatherman Multitool (I feel naked without it)
DIY Guy Tools and Supplies:
(***5PA) = Indicates that this topic, unlike for street bikes, is not a matter of just a link but rather is worth a 5 page article on the topic
Other documents: Some already completed!
35mm fork conversion for 350K Honda race bikes
Exhaust System (Mac to Jemco)
Wheels/Rims & Spokes (See “Wheels & Tires for Racing” further down this article)
Shocks (See “Shocks” at the bottom of this article)
Upgrade Considerations: AFTER you have a completely refreshed race bike and are looking to enter the transition bike category, you will find yourself considering the following upgrades.
Alloy (aluminum) Rims, based on your hub/brake plate decision, must match spoke count and array. Might want the benefits of this upgrade on day 1?
Spokes, New spokes, properly laced and trued, nice upgrade.
Front wheel brake set up (***5PA)
Rear wheel/brake set up? 350 Rear wheel/brake/hub is what this document/links is based on!
The SL350 Rear hub with CB200 brake plate is as trick as it gets, on a budget. (I enjoyed my entire 2017 season on Contis and the rear SL350 wheel with CB200 brake plate was all I hoped for. )
Front end? The 33mm (stock) front forks, could work fine for the first season. I ran one for the first 5 years. THERE WAS A NOTICABLE BENEFIT with the 35mm 1974 CB550 forks & triple tree configuration. My next project 350 race bike will start with the OEM 33mm front end, 2.15″ rims and Road Attack II 90/90-18 street tires. You’re not expected to push that hard your first season. As you do, a 35mm front end is inevitable.
About the author as a vintage motorcycle racer:
Raced a Norton with AHRMA in 1996 while running for state representative, maintaining the interactive attractions at Coke Olympic City during the Olympic summer of 96 in Atlanta. Was married at the end of 96 and let go of racing for about a decade. In 2004 that same Norton race bike came back up for sale. Early 2005, with the help of a British race partner, reentered racing with WERA. Norton racing was replaced with Honda CB350 racing the following year to take advantage of the reliability factor, leaving a lot of wrenching behind.
A decade of racing later, having gradually evolved the race bike to a mechanically upgraded race machine, I look forward to leaving my self-named nickname of “Crash” behind. Averaging 1.5 crashes a season over the past 11 race years is something I attribute to having NOT refined the bike as fast as my racing skill set.
Using the information above will hopefully help many future racers get up to speed with their race bikes. Get your bike to version 1.0, the sooner the better. Either way, if you’re already thinking about it, get yourself on the track and have some fun.
Modern Tires for Vintage Motorcycles (In only three pages)
I was inspired to jump on this topic when a future racer with a bike that is almost ready for the track showed up with stock 350 wheels, painted black, and sporting a Kenda Challenger on the rear and a Michelin Gazelle on the front. Although acceptable for the road riding to the convenience store, not what I’d recommend for a newbie to learn to race with, and the Gazelle for racing is NOT something I would have done, knowing what I know now.
My history includes some racing with biased belted Dunlops, but mostly with Avon bias tires which are the best tires in the rain, based on many other vintage racer’s experience. 2017 was my first year running the Continental Road Attack 2 CR race compound 100/90-18 size on 2.15″ rims, and racing has changed all for the better. It gets even better as the understanding for noticeably wider rim requirements evolves.
Knowing what I know now as a street rider, the tire is the part that rides on the road. As a racer, the tire is the part of your machine that “sticks to the track”. In the bias belted tire world, stickiness of the tire is a fairly literal term. Even after a complete regular racing season on the Continental Road Attack 2 CR I’m amazed at how the softness/stickiness which is not so evident, is replaced by some out and out awesome radial technology.
I first thought the tire’s forgiveness in tire pressure was an interesting quirk, however running the Continental radial tires, at their proper rim width precludes having to change to a lower tire pressure. This became apparent when I took out the KZ400 with the 440 motor, stock carbs, brakes, rims and spokes out on the track for its maiden voyage on Continental Classic Attacks in the 90/90-18 configuration.. I had been using the lower pressures required for the Classic Attacks cause a low speed wobble through turn 1 which cleared up with normal (28 rear and 26 front) tire pressures.
Interestingly, the smaller street compound wore just like the first generation of the CR2 Race Compound did, for the first few years. What I have referred to as a thumbprint scuffing was evident with more like race rubber rolloff on the sides at a slightly courser scuffing. The 90/90-18 Classic Attacks run about $140 each delivered to your door. They are front tires used for both front and rear on stock CB350 and KZ440 motored power. These street tires, run on the KZ440 are to be used as on the track where tested first. They are nothing shy of a miracle as street tires with race rubber Ready On Demand.
If you are NOT going to re-lace your wheels to new wider rims then I highly recommend that you significantly lower your tire size expectations. The Norton 750 and 850 Commandos came with WM2 (1.85″ rims) which were “acceptable” for use with the 90/90-18″ Contis that have recently been upgraded to wider rim support up to 2.75″ wide. My findings with 2.15″ wide rims have me wanting to enlarge to 2.5 or 2.75″ wide rims on future race bikes. So, with vintage narrow rims, keep you tire size down to a minimum. First best recommendation would be to relace with as large a rim width as will allow the tire to fit within the forks and swingarm limitations.
I see a virtually untapped market for the modernization of vintage spoked wheels and CNC machined cast wheel replacements.
The SL350 rear brake plate is a cable operated system from the factory. After a little experimentation, I came up with a way to turn the 1mm overlap that prevents the CB200 rear brake plate from fitting. The CB200 is a rod operated brake system, like the CB350/CL350 system. Using a rotary tool and sanding bands/drums on both the SL350 brake hub and interior of the CB200 brake plate, a smooth and even removal of about 1mm of each leaves enough clearance to allow the two to mesh quite nicely. I did run with a thin film of grease between the two, just as a precaution. I had no issues all season long.
I’ve also cut away, using a band saw, the non reinforced sections of plate to allow inspection and cooling on the track. Flipping the brake cam so the brake arm is in the upward position makes access to the rear-set brake rod and de-tunes the brake function by taking the brake arm from operating in the 7 o’clock to 5 o’clock position which is optimized at the tangent and moves the operating range to more like the 1 o’clock to 3 o’clock range. In this setup, the more brake that is applied, the less leverage is made available to the brake shoes. Having received many a pat on the back for rear wheel lockup recoveries, this is a subject near and dear to this racer’s heart.
Both these wheels represent my first fore into non OEM steel wheels on originally trued spokes that hadn’t been touched since the factory. I don’t recommend that any newbie in the future boast such a claim, now knowing that truing even the OEM spokes and wheels would be better, safer, and leaving the racer with more control, better feedback from the bike, and a better learning curve to boot.
For the CB350 front wheel using OEM specification spokes, Sirius Consolidated offers these CB350 front spokes for your consideration. For SL350 rear wheels, SCI offers these SL350 rear spokes which I have used to lace up a 2.15” aluminum rim to with great results.
In 2017, Black Bullitt has been laced with Buchanan spokes on the rear with the Honda SL350 hub/CB200 brake plate (cutaway) and non-Buchanan spokes on the stock OEM Honda 350 front hub/brake plate wheel. Both rims are aluminum 2.15″ wide rims. Not a spoke broke all season on either wheel.
If Buchanan is within your budget, “Spoke Angel” is a great resource with excellent customer service and will see that you get exactly what you ask for. So, get it right the first time and so will she. She will need to know what type of rim and hub you are looking to lace together. If further information is required, she’ll let you know.
Last, but definitely not least in the wheels & tires department would be bearings. At $15 a set, there is no reason to not finish your wheel updating with the icing on the cake.
REAL WORLD BEARING NOTE: The OEM bearings are sealed ONLY ON THE OUTSIDE. Removing the bearings will reveal that the seals are not present on the inside of the bearings as the concept was that the weather sides of the bike are protected. As such, any wheels that spent time off the bike, without an axle in them, may have spent time weather exposed making conditions inside the bearings unknown.
Conversely, NEW front wheel bearings and NEW rear bearings only cost about $15 a set. Slide hammer type bearing removal tools start at around $30 and make a nice addition to your tool arsenal. Although once PB Blasted, there have been no reports of bearings locking up, the ability to replace the most strategic parts of the “wheels go round and round” of a 50 year old motorcycle just seems to makes sense. Bearing removal tools may very well be an item that your local Auto Zone, Advance Auto Parts, or NAPA may have available for loan or rent?
Upgrade your wheels, you tires and your steering bearings (to tapered roller bearings) and enjoy your vintage motorcycle with a ride never before thought possible.
(In one page, or less)
On the CB350 I have absolutely no information to offer in the line of shocks. I am still racing on the shocks that were on the bike when I bought it. They are RedWing shocks from the 1970s or 1980s that I assume were NOS when Seg Niebuhr configured the bike back when he owned it. Seg was one of the original authors of the document string that I and many 350 Honda racers used as a reference to learn about 350 Hondas for racing purposes. http://www.eurospares.com/350faq.htm
Of all the parts that I have upgraded on Black Bullit, shocks are not one of them. I have upgraded swing arm bushings this past winter. However, the shocks have not been identified as an issue… yet.
I can tell you that new or NOS shocks are better than the 50 year old originals. I can tell you that there are $1,200 shocks and there are $100 shocks. It is important to keep in mind the rules for the class you will be racing in. However, although I can’t give you any recommendations as this is an area that I have not yet researched nor invested in, I have heard of names like Hagon and Progressive.
It is important to note that the CB350/CL350 Hondas have a shock span of 12.5”. The shocks need to be eyelet on top and clevis on the bottom! If the original OEM exhaust is being used on a CL350, then very narrow shock coil springs must be employed to fit inside the concavity of the OEM shocks. On that note, the OEM exhaust system are very heavy and best replaced with something like MAC or Jemco exhaust. Making everything else about your suspension system behave as it should will offer more forgiveness in the area of shock absorbers.
However, I do now have some information about racing the KZ440 with wimpy shocks. After my low speed wobble at Lil Tally, I ordered a new set of shocks from Sirius Consolidated Inc. I took that same KZ440 to the Barber Vintage Festival and felt a lot more confident about pushing speed through the turns, with the Conti Classic Attacks on the pavement.